History of the Butterfly, Part 45: The treaty

“Whereas, under certain lawless and desperate leaders a formidable band, consisting  a large portion of the Sac and Fox nation, left their country in April last, and, in violation of treaties, commenced an unprovoked war on unsuspecting and defenseless citizens of the United States, sparing neither age nor sex; and whereas, the United States, at great expense of treasure have subdued the said hostile band, killing or capturing all its principle Chiefs and Warriors—the said States, partly as indemnity for the expense incurred, and partly to secure the future safety and tranquility of the invaded frontier, demand of the said tribes, to the use of the United States, a cessation of a tract of the Sac and Fox country, bordering on said frontier, more than proportional to the numbers of the hostile band who have been so conquered and subdued.”

On September 21, 1832, Thirty-three Native Americans of the Sauk and Fox (Meskwaki) tribes, including Poweshiek, signed the “Black Hawk treaty of 1832”.  It began with the verbiage above.  With this treaty, Poweshiek and others signed away the homes of their ancestors. 

Black Hawk did not sign the treaty that bears his name.  The “Black Hawk War” was an armed conflict between the United States and Black Hawk and a number of individuals (including many women and children) who were trying to return to their homes.  But that is something to discuss later.

Himself (Winfield Scott) directed the negotiations.

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About the roused bear

Nature photographer from central Iowa.
This entry was posted in American Indians, Black Hawk, Fox tribe, Iowa History, Meskwaki, Mesquaki, Powasheek, Poweshiek, The History of the Butterfly and tagged , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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